Culinary Class 12/02/09
In this weeks class we will cover another of the Mother Sauces; a “Brown Sauce or Espagnole Sauce”. I have also included recipes for the other sauces we have covered in previous classes.
We will also learn to prepare Biscotti, perfect for the holiday season or anytime with your breakfast cappuccino or midday espresso.
Espagnole is a classic brown sauce, typically made from brown stock, mirepoix, and tomatoes, and thickened with roux. Given that the sauce is French in origin, where did the name come from? According to Alan Davidson, in The Oxford Companion to Food, “The name has nothing to do with Spain, any more than the counterpart term allemande has anything to do with Germany. It is generally believed that the terms were chosen because in French eyes Germans are blond and Spaniards are brown.”
Yield: Makes about 2 2/3 cups
1 small carrot, coarsely chopped
1 medium onion, coarsely chopped
1/2 stick (1/4 cup) unsalted butter
1/4 cup all-purpose flour
4 cups hot beef stock
1/4 cup canned tomato purée
2 large garlic cloves, coarsely chopped
1 celery rib, coarsely chopped
1/2 teaspoon whole black peppercorns
1 bay leaf
Cook carrot and onion in butter in a 3-quart heavy saucepan over moderate heat, stirring occasionally, until golden, 7 to 8 minutes. Add flour and cook roux over moderately low heat, stirring constantly, until medium brown, 6 to 10 minutes. Add hot stock in a fast stream, whisking constantly to prevent lumps, then add tomato puree, garlic, celery, peppercorns, and bay leaf and bring to a boil, stirring. Reduce heat and cook at a bare simmer, uncovered, stirring occasionally, until reduced to about 3 cups, about 45 minutes.
Pour sauce through a fine-mesh sieve into a bowl, discarding solids.
Place 1 cup red wine, 2 minced shallots, 1/4 teaspoon crushed black peppercorns pinch of thyme and 1/2 bay leaf in a saucepan. Bring to a boil and then reduce to medium heat. Cook for about 30 minutes or until reduced by three-fourths. Add 1 quart brown sauce and simmer for 15 to 20 minutes. Remove from heat and strain through a line strainer (or cheesecloth). Cut 2 tablespoons butter into small pieces and drop them, one at a time, into the sauce while stirring constantly to combine. Serve immediately. Makes about 4 cups.
Place 1 quart brown sauce in a heavy saucepan over medium heat. Cook for 30 minutes until reduced by one half. Add 1/2 cup Madeira Wine, stirring to combine. Serve immediately. Makes about 2 cups.
Mushroom Marsala Sauce
Melt 1 tablespoon butter in a heavy sauté pan over moderate heat, add 1/2 pound sliced mushrooms and continue sautéing until brown. Add 1 quart brown sauce and simmer for about 10 minutes. Add ½ cup of Marsala wine, and simmer for 5 minutes. Makes about 4 cups.
Béchamel Sauce (white sauce)
This should always be one of the first lessons in any culinary class. When well made this sauce can be used many different ways, often making leftovers stretch or giving cooked foods new life. And it is important as a base for soufflés. The French term for this medium-thick white sauce is béchamel. The foolproof way to attain a perfectly smooth sauce is to have the milk hot when added to the butter and flour. It uses an extra pot, but as you become more proficient, this cautionary measure may not be necessary.
Yield: Makes about 1 cup
2 tablespoons butter
2 tablespoons flour
1 1/4 cups milk, heated
freshly ground pepper
Melt the butter in a heavy-bottomed saucepan. Stir in the flour and cook, stirring constantly, until the paste cooks and bubbles a bit, but don’t let it brown — about 2 minutes. Add the hot milk, continuing to stir as the sauce thickens. Bring it to a boil. Add salt and pepper to taste, lower the heat, and cook, stirring for 2 to 3 minutes more. Remove from the heat. To cool this sauce for later use, cover it with wax paper or pour a film of milk over it to prevent a skin from forming.
How hot should the milk be?
Warm the milk on low heat just until little bubbles begin to form at the edges. Then remove from heat.
Stir in 1/2 cup grated Cheddar cheese during the last 2 minutes of cooking, along with a pinch of cayenne pepper.
Use chicken broth or fish stock instead of milk.
Add 1/2 cup of grated Swiss, Gruyere or Emmanthal cheese after sauce thickens. Remove from heat and whisk until melted and smooth.
Marinara Sauce (Red Sauce)
2 cloves fresh garlic chopped
1 bottle cento crushed tomato (San Marizano)
1 bottle cento diced tomato (San Marizano)
1 bunch fresh basil
1 small onion finely diced
¼ cup Olive Oil
Salt and Pepper to taste
-In a large skillet or small sauce pot, brown diced onion and chopped
garlic in olive oil.
-add tomatoes, rinse jars with a little water and add
-chop basil and add to tomatoes
-Salt and pepper to taste
-Simmer for 15-20 minutes (sauce can be simmered longer if desired)
-Extra olive oil can be added before serving
Saute then add any combination of fresh zucchini, mushrooms, eggplant, or spinach to marinara sauce.
add 16 oz heavy cream and 1 cup of Grated Romano Cheese to One Quart of Marinara to make a Rosa Sauce
Preheat oven to 350º
1-2/3 cup flour
1 tsp baking powder
¼ tsp salt
2 large eggs
2/3 cup sugar
2 tablespoons oil
½ cup coarsely chopped walnuts
2/3 cup dried cranberries
In a small bowl mix flour, baking powder and salt.In a large bowl, beat together the eggs, sugar and oil until mixture is a light yellow in color.Add the flour mixture, nuts and cranberries.With moistened hands form dough into log on cookie sheet, about one inch thick by 3 inches wide.Bake for 25 minutes or until golden brown. Allow to cool for about 10 minutes then slice into ½ inch slices and place on sides and return to oven.
Bake for 10-15 minutes. Let cool.
Chocolate chips, or any other nut, or dried fruits can be substituted.